ROMANS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 67. 89.

 1011. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

1 2 Paul, a slave of Christ Jesus, called to be an apostle and set apart for the gospel of God,

which he promised previously through his prophets in the holy scriptures,

3 the gospel about his Son, descended from David according to the flesh,

but established as Son of God in power according to the spirit of holiness through resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord.

4 Through him we have received the grace of apostleship, to bring about the obedience of faith, for the sake of his name, among all the Gentiles,

among whom are you also, who are called to belong to Jesus Christ;

to all the beloved of God in Rome, called to be holy. 5 Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

First, I give thanks 6 to my God through Jesus Christ for all of you, because your faith is heralded throughout the world.

God is my witness, whom I serve with my spirit in proclaiming the gospel of his Son, that I remember you constantly,

10 7 always asking in my prayers that somehow by God’s will I may at last find my way clear to come to you.

11 For I long to see you, that I may share with you some spiritual gift so that you may be strengthened,

12 that is, that you and I may be mutually encouraged by one another’s faith, yours and mine.

13 I do not want you to be unaware, brothers, 8 that I often planned to come to you, though I was prevented until now, that I might harvest some fruit among you, too, as among the rest of the Gentiles.

14 To Greeks 9 and non-Greeks alike, to the wise and the ignorant, I am under obligation;

15 that is why I am eager to preach the gospel also to you in Rome.

16 10 For I am not ashamed of the gospel. It is the power of God for the salvation of everyone who believes: for Jew first, and then Greek.

17 For in it is revealed the righteousness of God from faith to faith; 11 as it is written, “The one who is righteous by faith will live.”

18 12 The wrath 13 of God 14 is indeed being revealed from heaven against every impiety and wickedness of those who suppress the truth by their wickedness.

19 For what can be known about God is evident to them, because God made it evident to them.

20 Ever since the creation of the world, his invisible attributes of eternal power and divinity have been able to be understood and perceived in what he has made. As a result, they have no excuse;

21 for although they knew God they did not accord him glory as God or give him thanks. Instead, they became vain in their reasoning, and their senseless minds were darkened.

22 While claiming to be wise, they became fools

23 and exchanged the glory of the immortal God for the likeness of an image of mortal man or of birds or of four-legged animals or of snakes.

24 Therefore, God handed them over to impurity through the lusts of their hearts 15 for the mutual degradation of their bodies.

25 They exchanged the truth of God for a lie and revered and worshiped the creature rather than the creator, who is blessed forever. Amen.

26 Therefore, God handed them over to degrading passions. Their females exchanged natural relations for unnatural,

27 and the males likewise gave up natural relations with females and burned with lust for one another. Males did shameful things with males and thus received in their own persons the due penalty for their perversity.

28 And since they did not see fit to acknowledge God, God handed them over to their undiscerning mind to do what is improper.

29 They are filled with every form of wickedness, evil, greed, and malice; full of envy, murder, rivalry, treachery, and spite. They are gossips

30 and scandalmongers and they hate God. They are insolent, haughty, boastful, ingenious in their wickedness, and rebellious toward their parents.

31 They are senseless, faithless, heartless, ruthless.

32 Although they know the just decree of God that all who practice such things deserve death, they not only do them but give approval to those who practice them. 

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 67. 89.

 1011. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

 1 [1-7] In Paul’s letters the greeting or praescriptio follows a standard form, though with variations. It is based upon the common Greco-Roman epistolary practice, but with the addition of Semitic and specifically Christian elements. The three basic components are: name of sender; name of addressee; greeting. In identifying himself, Paul often adds phrases to describe his apostolic mission; this element is more developed in Romans than in any other letter. Elsewhere he associates co-workers with himself in the greeting: Sosthenes (1 Cor), Timothy (2 Cor; Phil; Phl) Silvanus (1 Thes – 2 Thes). The standard secular greeting was the infinitive chairein, “greetings.” Paul uses instead the similar-sounding charis, “grace,” together with the Semitic greeting salom (Greek eirene), “peace.” These gifts, foreshadowed in God’s dealings with Israel (see ⇒ Numbers 6:24-26), have been poured out abundantly in Christ, and Paul wishes them to his readers. In Romans the Pauline praescriptio is expanded and expressed in a formal tone; it emphasizes Paul’s office as apostle to the Gentiles. ⇒ Romans 1:3-4 stress the gospel or kerygma, ⇒ Romans 1:2 the fulfillment of God’s promise, and ⇒ Romans 1:1, 5 Paul’s office. On his call, see ⇒ Gal 1:15-16; ⇒ 1 Cor 9:1; ⇒ 15:8-10; ⇒ Acts 9:1-22; ⇒ 22:3-16; ⇒ 26:4-18.

2 [1] Slave of Christ Jesus: Paul applies the term slave to himself in order to express his undivided allegiance to the Lord of the church, the Master of all, including slaves and masters. “No one can serve (i.e., be a slave to) two masters,” said Jesus (⇒ Matthew 6:24). It is this aspect of the slave-master relationship rather than its degrading implications that Paul emphasizes when he discusses Christian commitment.

3 [3-4] Paul here cites an early confession that proclaims Jesus’ sonship as messianic descendant of David (cf ⇒ Matthew 22:42; ⇒ 2 Tim 2:8; ⇒ Rev 22:16) and as Son of God by the resurrection. As “life-giving spirit” (⇒ 1 Cor 15:45), Jesus Christ is able to communicate the Spirit to those who believe in him.

4 [5] Paul recalls his apostolic office, implying that the Romans know something of his history. The obedience of faith: as Paul will show at length in chs 6-8 and 12-15, faith in God’s justifying action in Jesus Christ relates one to God’s gift of the new life that is made possible through the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ and the activity of the holy Spirit (see especially ⇒ Romans 8:1-11).

5 [7] Called to be holy: Paul often refers to Christians as “the holy ones” or “the saints.” The Israelite community was called a “holy assembly” because they had been separated for the worship and service of the Lord (see ⇒ Lev 11:44; ⇒ 23:1-44). The Christian community regarded its members as sanctified by baptism (⇒ Romans 6:22; ⇒ 15:16; ⇒ 1 Cor 6:11; ⇒ Eph 5:26-27). Christians are called to holiness (⇒ 1 Cor 1:2; ⇒ 1 Thes 4:7), that is, they are called to make their lives conform to the gift they have already received.

6 [8] In Greco-Roman letters, the greeting was customarily followed by a prayer. The Pauline letters usually include this element (except Gal and 1 Tim, 2 Tim) expressed in Christian thanksgiving formulas and usually stating the principal theme of the letter. In 2 Cor the thanksgiving becomes a blessing, and in Eph it is preceded by a lengthy blessing. Sometimes the thanksgiving is blended into the body of the letter, especially in 1 Thes. In Romans it is stated briefly.

7 [10-12] Paul lays the groundwork for his more detailed statement in ⇒ Romans 15:22-24 about his projected visit to Rome.

8 [13] Brothers is idiomatic for all Paul’s “kin in Christ,” all those who believe in the gospel; it includes women as well as men (cf ⇒ Romans 4:3).

9 [14] Greeks and non-Greeks: literally, “Greeks and barbarians.” As a result of Alexander’s conquests, Greek became the standard international language of the Mediterranean world. Greeks in Paul’s statement therefore means people who know Greek or who have been influenced by Greek culture. Non-Greeks were people whose cultures remained substantially unaffected by Greek influences. Greeks called such people “barbarians” (cf ⇒ Acts 28:2), meaning people whose speech was foreign. Roman citizens would scarcely classify themselves as such, and Nero, who was reigning when Paul wrote this letter, prided himself on his admiration for Greek culture. Under obligation: Paul will expand on the theme of obligation in ⇒ Romans 13:8; ⇒ 15:1, ⇒ 27.

10 [16-17] The principal theme of the letter is salvation through faith. I am not ashamed of the gospel: Paul is not ashamed to proclaim the gospel, despite the criticism that Jews and Gentiles leveled against the proclamation of the crucified savior; cf ⇒ 1 Cor 1:23-24. Paul affirms, however, that it is precisely through the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus that God’s saving will and power become manifest. Jew first (cf ⇒ Romans 2:9-10) means that Jews especially, in view of the example of Abraham (Romans 4), ought to be the leaders in the response of faith.

11 [17] In it is revealed the righteousness of God from faith to faith: the gospel centers in Jesus Christ, in whom God’s saving presence and righteousness in history have been made known. Faith is affirmation of the basic purpose and meaning of the Old Testament as proclamation of divine promise (⇒ Romans 1:2; ⇒ 4:13) and exposure of the inability of humanity to effect its salvation even through covenant law. Faith is the gift of the holy Spirit and denotes acceptance of salvation as God’s righteousness, that is, God’s gift of a renewed relationship in forgiveness and power for a new life. Faith is response to God’s total claim on people and their destiny. The one who is righteous by faith will live: see the note on ⇒ Habakkuk 2:4.

12 [⇒ 1:18-⇒ 3:20] Paul aims to show that all humanity is in a desperate plight and requires God’s special intervention if it is to be saved.

13 [18-32] In this passage Paul uses themes and rhetoric common in Jewish-Hellenistic mission proclamation (cf ⇒ Wisdom 13:1-⇒ 14:31) to indict especially the non-Jewish world. The close association of idolatry and immorality is basic, but the generalization needs in all fairness to be balanced against the fact that non-Jewish Christian society on many levels displayed moral attitudes and performance whose quality would challenge much of contemporary Christian culture. Romans themselves expressed abhorrence over devotion accorded to animals in Egypt. Paul’s main point is that the wrath of God does not await the end of the world but goes into action at each present moment in humanity’s history when misdirected piety serves as a facade for self-interest.

14 [18] The wrath of God: God’s reaction to human sinfulness, an Old Testament phrase that expresses the irreconcilable opposition between God and evil (see ⇒ Isaiah 9:11, ⇒ 16, ⇒ 18, ⇒ 20; ⇒ 10:4; ⇒ 30:27). It is not contrary to God’s universal love for his creatures, but condemns Israel’s turning aside from the covenant obligations. Hosea depicts Yahweh as suffering intensely at the thought of having to punish Israel (⇒ Hosea 11:8-9). God’s wrath was to be poured forth especially on the “Day of Yahweh” and thus took on an eschatological connotation (see ⇒ Zephaniah 1:15).

15 [24] In order to expose the depth of humanity’s rebellion against the Creator, God handed them over to impurity through the lusts of their hearts. Instead of curbing people’s evil interests, God abandoned them to self-indulgence, thereby removing the facade of apparent conformity to the divine will. Subsequently Paul will show that the Mosaic law produces the same effect; cf ⇒ Romans 5:20; ⇒ 7:13-24. The divine judgment expressed here is related to the theme of hardness of heart described in ⇒ Romans 9:17-18.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 67. 89.

 1011. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

JOHN – CHAPTER 1

 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  11. 

12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

1 2 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

He was in the beginning with God.

3 All things came to be through him, and without him nothing came to be. What came to be

through him was life, and this life was the light of the human race;

4 the light shines in the darkness, and the darkness has not overcome it.

5 A man named John was sent from God.

He came for testimony, 6 to testify to the light, so that all might believe through him.

He was not the light, but came to testify to the light.

The true light, which enlightens everyone, was coming into the world.

10 He was in the world, and the world came to be through him, but the world did not know him.

11 He came to what was his own, but his own people 7 did not accept him.

12 But to those who did accept him he gave power to become children of God, to those who believe in his name,

13 8 who were born not by natural generation nor by human choice nor by a man’s decision but of God.

14 And the Word became flesh 9 and made his dwelling among us, and we saw his glory, the glory as of the Father’s only Son, full of grace and truth.

15 10 John testified to him and cried out, saying, “This was he of whom I said, ‘The one who is coming after me ranks ahead of me because he existed before me.'”

16 From his fullness we have all received, grace in place of grace, 11

17 because while the law was given through Moses, grace and truth came through Jesus Christ.

18 No one has ever seen God. The only Son, God, 12 who is at the Father’s side, has revealed him.

19 13 14 And this is the testimony of John. When the Jews from Jerusalem sent priests and Levites (to him) to ask him, “Who are you?”

20 15 he admitted and did not deny it, but admitted, “I am not the Messiah.”

21 So they asked him, “What are you then? Are you Elijah?” 16 And he said, “I am not.” “Are you the Prophet?” He answered, “No.”

22 So they said to him, “Who are you, so we can give an answer to those who sent us? What do you have to say for yourself?”

23 He said: “I am ‘the voice of one crying out in the desert, “Make straight the way of the Lord,”‘ 17 as Isaiah the prophet said.”

24 Some Pharisees 18 were also sent.

25 They asked him, “Why then do you baptize if you are not the Messiah or Elijah or the Prophet?”

26 John answered them, “I baptize with water; 19 but there is one among you whom you do not recognize,

27 the one who is coming after me, whose sandal strap I am not worthy to untie.”

28 This happened in Bethany across the Jordan, 20 where John was baptizing.

29 The next day he saw Jesus coming toward him and said, “Behold, the Lamb of God, 21 who takes away the sin of the world.

30 22 He is the one of whom I said, ‘A man is coming after me who ranks ahead of me because he existed before me.’

31 I did not know him, 23 but the reason why I came baptizing with water was that he might be made known to Israel.”

32 John testified further, saying, “I saw the Spirit come down like a dove 24 from the sky and remain upon him.

33 I did not know him, but the one who sent me to baptize with water told me, ‘On whomever you see the Spirit come down and remain, he is the one who will baptize with the holy Spirit.’

34 25 Now I have seen and testified that he is the Son of God.”

35 The next day John was there again with two of his disciples,

36 and as he watched Jesus walk by, he said, “Behold, the Lamb of God.” 26

37 The two disciples 27 heard what he said and followed Jesus.

38 Jesus turned and saw them following him and said to them, “What are you looking for?” They said to him, “Rabbi” (which translated means Teacher), “where are you staying?”

39 He said to them,”Come, and you will see.” So they went and saw where he was staying, and they stayed with him that day. It was about four in the afternoon. 28

40 Andrew, the brother of Simon Peter, was one of the two who heard John and followed Jesus.

41 He first found his own brother Simon and told him, “We have found the Messiah” 29 (which is translated Anointed).

42 Then he brought him to Jesus. Jesus looked at him and said, “You are Simon the son of John; 30 you will be called Kephas” (which is translated Peter).

43 The next day he 31 decided to go to Galilee, and he found Philip. And Jesus said to him, “Follow me.”

44 Now Philip was from Bethsaida, the town of Andrew and Peter.

45 Philip found Nathanael and told him, “We have found the one about whom Moses wrote in the law, and also the prophets, Jesus, son of Joseph, from Nazareth.”

46 But Nathanael said to him, “Can anything good come from Nazareth?” Philip said to him, “Come and see.”

47 Jesus saw Nathanael coming toward him and said of him, “Here is a true Israelite. 32 There is no duplicity in him.”

48 33 Nathanael said to him, “How do you know me?” Jesus answered and said to him, “Before Philip called you, I saw you under the fig tree.”

49 Nathanael answered him, “Rabbi, you are the Son of God; 34 you are the King of Israel.”

50 Jesus answered and said to him, “Do you believe because I told you that I saw you under the fig tree? 35 You will see greater things than this.”

51 And he said to him, “Amen, amen, 36 I say to you, you will see the sky opened and the angels of God ascending and descending on the Son of Man.”

 

 

1 [1-18] The prologue states the main themes of the gospel: life, light, truth, the world, testimony, and the preexistence of Jesus Christ, the incarnate Logos, who reveals God the Father. In origin, it was probably an early Christian hymn. Its closest parallel is in other christological hymns, Col 1:15-20 and Philippians 2:6-11. Its core ( John 1:1-5, 10-11, 14) is poetic in structure, with short phrases linked by “staircase parallelism,” in which the last word of one phrase becomes the first word of the next. Prose inserts (at least John 1:6-8, 15) deal with John the Baptist.

2 [1] In the beginning: also the first words of the Old Testament ( Genesis 1:1). Was: this verb is used three times with different meanings in this verse: existence, relationship, and predication. The Word (Greek logos): this term combines God’s dynamic, creative word (Genesis), personified preexistent Wisdom as the instrument of God’s creative activity (Proverbs), and the ultimate intelligibility of reality (Hellenistic philosophy). With God: the Greek preposition here connotes communication with another. Was God: lack of a definite article with “God” in Greek signifies predication rather than identification.

3 [1] What came to be: while the oldest manuscripts have no punctuation here, the corrector of Bodmer Papyrus P75, some manuscripts, and the Ante-Nicene Fathers take this phrase with what follows, as staircase parallelism. Connection with John 1:3 reflects fourth-century anti-Arianism.

4 [5] The ethical dualism of light and darkness is paralleled in intertestamental literature and in the Dead Sea Scrolls. Overcome: “comprehend” is another possible translation, but cf John 12:35; Wisdom 7:29-30.

5 [6] John was sent just as Jesus was “sent” ( John 4:34) in divine mission. Other references to John the Baptist in this gospel emphasize the differences between them and John’s subordinate role.

6 [7] Testimony: the testimony theme of John is introduced, which portrays Jesus as if on trial throughout his ministry. All testify to Jesus: John the Baptist, the Samaritan woman, scripture, his works, the crowds, the Spirit, and his disciples.

7 [11] What was his own . . . his own people: first a neuter, literally, “his own property/possession” (probably = Israel), then a masculine, “his own people” (the Israelites).

8 [13] Believers in Jesus become children of God not through any of the three natural causes mentioned but through God who is the immediate cause of the new spiritual life. Were born: the Greek verb can mean “begotten” (by a male) or “born” (from a female or of parents). The variant “he who was begotten,” asserting Jesus’ virginal conception, is weakly attested in Old Latin and Syriac versions.

9 [14] Flesh: the whole person, used probably against docetic tendencies (cf 1 John 4:2; 1:7). Made his dwelling: literally, “pitched his tent/tabernacle.” Cf the tabernacle or tent of meeting that was the place of God’s presence among his people ( Exodus 25:8-9). The incarnate Word is the new mode of God’s presence among his people. The Greek verb has the same consonants as the Aramaic word for God’s presence (Shekinah). Glory: God’s visible manifestation of majesty in power, which once filled the tabernacle ( Exodus 40:34) and the temple ( 1 Kings 8:10-11, 27), is now centered in Jesus. Only Son: Greek, monogenes, but see the note on John 1:18. Grace and truth: these words may represent two Old Testament terms describing Yahweh in covenant relationship with Israel (cf Exodus 34:6), thus God’s “love” and “fidelity.” The Word shares Yahweh’s covenant qualities.

10 [15] This verse, interrupting John 1:14, 16 seems drawn from John 1:30.

11 [16] Grace in place of grace: replacement of the Old Covenant with the New (cf John 1:17). Other possible translations are “grace upon grace” (accumulation) and “grace for grace” (correspondence).

12 [18] The only Son, God: while the vast majority of later textual witnesses have another reading, “the Son, the only one” or “the only Son,” the translation above follows the best and earliest manuscripts, monogenes theos, but takes the first term to mean not just “Only One” but to include a filial relationship with the Father, as at Luke 9:38 (“only child”) or Hebrews 11:17 (“only son”) and as translated at John 1:14. The Logos is thus “only Son” and God but not Father/God.

13 [19-51] The testimony of John the Baptist about the Messiah and Jesus’ self-revelation to the first disciples. This section constitutes the introduction to the gospel proper and is connected with the prose inserts in the prologue. It develops the major theme of testimony in four scenes: John’s negative testimony about himself; his positive testimony about Jesus; the revelation of Jesus to Andrew and Peter; the revelation of Jesus to Philip and Nathanael.

14 [19] The Jews: throughout most of the gospel, the “Jews” does not refer to the Jewish people as such but to the hostile authorities, both Pharisees and Sadducees, particularly in Jerusalem, who refuse to believe in Jesus. The usage reflects the atmosphere, at the end of the first century, of polemics between church and synagogue, or possibly it refers to Jews as representative of a hostile world ( John 1:10-11).

15 [20] Messiah: the anointed agent of Yahweh, usually considered to be of Davidic descent. See further the note on John 1:41.

16 [21] Elijah: the Baptist did not claim to be Elijah returned to earth (cf Malachi 3:23; Matthew 11:14). The Prophet: probably the prophet like Moses ( Deut 18:15; cf Acts 3:22).

17 [23] This is a repunctuation and reinterpretation (as in the synoptic gospels and Septuagint) of the Hebrew text of Isaiah 40:3 which reads, “A voice cries out: In the desert prepare the way of the Lord.”

18 [24] Some Pharisees: other translations, such as “Now they had been sent from the Pharisees,” misunderstand the grammatical construction. This is a different group from that in John 1:19; the priests and Levites would have been Sadducees, not Pharisees.

19 [26] I baptize with water: the synoptics add “but he will baptize you with the holy Spirit” ( Mark 1:8) or “. . . holy Spirit and fire” ( Matthew 3:11; Luke 3:16). John’s emphasis is on purification and preparation for a better baptism.

20 [28] Bethany across the Jordan: site unknown. Another reading is “Bethabara.”

21 [29] The Lamb of God: the background for this title may be the victorious apocalyptic lamb who would destroy evil in the world (Rev 5-7; 17:14); the paschal lamb, whose blood saved Israel (Exodus 12); and/or the suffering servant led like a lamb to the slaughter as a sin-offering ( Isaiah 53:7, 10).

22 [30] He existed before me: possibly as Elijah (to come, John 1:27); for the evangelist and his audience, Jesus’ preexistence would be implied (see the note on John 1:1).

23 [31] I did not know him: this gospel shows no knowledge of the tradition (Luke 1) about the kinship of Jesus and John the Baptist. The reason why I came baptizing with water: in this gospel, John’s baptism is not connected with forgiveness of sins; its purpose is revelatory, that Jesus may be made known to Israel.

24 [32] Like a dove: a symbol of the new creation ( Genesis 8:8) or the community of Israel ( Hosea 11:11). Remain: the first use of a favorite verb in John, emphasizing the permanency of the relationship between Father and Son (as here) and between the Son and the Christian. Jesus is the permanent bearer of the Spirit.

25 [34] The Son of God: this reading is supported by good Greek manuscripts, including the Chester Beatty and Bodmer Papyri and the Vatican Codex, but is suspect because it harmonizes this passage with the synoptic version: “This is my beloved Son” ( Matthew 3:17; Mark 1:11; Luke 3:22). The poorly attested alternate reading, “God’s chosen One,” is probably a reference to the Servant of Yahweh ( Isaiah 42:1).

26 [36] John the Baptist’s testimony makes his disciples’ following of Jesus plausible.

27 [37] The two disciples: Andrew ( John 1:40) and, traditionally, John, son of Zebedee (see the note on John 13:23).

28 [39] Four in the afternoon: literally, the tenth hour, from sunrise, in the Roman calculation of time. Some suggest that the next day, beginning at sunset, was the sabbath; they would have stayed with Jesus to avoid travel on it.

29 [41] Messiah: the Hebrew word masiah, “anointed one” (see the note on Luke 2:11), appears in Greek as the transliterated messias only here and in John 4:25. Elsewhere the Greek translation christos is used.

30 [42] Simon, the son of John: in Matthew 16:17, Simon is called Bariona, “son of Jonah,” a different tradition for the name of Simon’s father. Kephas: in Aramaic = the Rock; cf Matthew 16:18. Neither the Greek equivalent Petros nor, with one isolated exception, Kephas is attested as a personal name before Christian times.

31 [43] He: grammatically, could be Peter, but logically is probably Jesus.

32 [47] A true Israelite. There is no duplicity in him: Jacob was the first to bear the name “Israel” ( Genesis 32:29), but Jacob was a man of duplicity ( Genesis 27:35-36).

33 [48] Under the fig tree: a symbol of messianic peace (cf Micah 4:4; Zechariah 3:10).

34 [49] Son of God: this title is used in the Old Testament, among other ways, as a title of adoption for the Davidic king ( 2 Sam 7:14; Psalm 2:7; 89:27), and thus here, with King of Israel, in a messianic sense. For the evangelist, Son of God also points to Jesus’ divinity (cf John 20:28).

35 [50] Possibly a statement: “You [singular] believe because I saw you under the fig tree.”

36 [51] The double “Amen” is characteristic of John. You is plural in Greek. The allusion is to Jacob’s ladder ( Genesis 28:12).

LUKE – CHAPTER 1

12. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 

17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

Chapter 1

11 Since many have undertaken to compile a narrative of the events that have been fulfilled among us,

just as those who were eyewitnesses from the beginning and ministers of the word have handed them down to us,

I too have decided, after investigating everything accurately anew, to write it down in an orderly sequence for you, most excellent Theophilus,

so that you may realize the certainty of the teachings you have received.

2 In the days of Herod, King of Judea, 3 there was a priest named Zechariah of the priestly division of Abijah; his wife was from the daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elizabeth.

Both were righteous in the eyes of God, observing all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord blamelessly.

But they had no child, 4 because Elizabeth was barren and both were advanced in years.

Once when he was serving as priest in his division’s turn before God,

according to the practice of the priestly service, he was chosen by lot to enter the sanctuary of the Lord to burn incense.

10 Then, when the whole assembly of the people was praying outside at the hour of the incense offering,

11 the angel of the Lord appeared to him, standing at the right of the altar of incense.

12 Zechariah was troubled by what he saw, and fear came upon him.

13 But the angel said to him, “Do not be afraid, 5 Zechariah, because your prayer has been heard. Your wife Elizabeth will bear you a son, and you shall name him John.

14 And you will have joy and gladness, and many will rejoice at his birth,

15 for he will be great in the sight of (the) Lord. He will drink neither wine nor strong drink. 6 He will be filled with the holy Spirit even from his mother’s womb,

16 and he will turn many of the children of Israel to the Lord their God.

17 He will go before him in the spirit and power of Elijah 7 to turn the hearts of fathers toward children and the disobedient to the understanding of the righteous, to prepare a people fit for the Lord.”

18 Then Zechariah said to the angel, “How shall I know this? For I am an old man, and my wife is advanced in years.”

19 And the angel said to him in reply, “I am Gabriel, 8 who stand before God. I was sent to speak to you and to announce to you this good news.

20 But now you will be speechless and unable to talk 9 until the day these things take place, because you did not believe my words, which will be fulfilled at their proper time.”

21 Meanwhile the people were waiting for Zechariah and were amazed that he stayed so long in the sanctuary.

22 But when he came out, he was unable to speak to them, and they realized that he had seen a vision in the sanctuary. He was gesturing to them but remained mute.

23 Then, when his days of ministry were completed, he went home.

24 After this time his wife Elizabeth conceived, and she went into seclusion for five months, saying,

25 “So has the Lord done for me at a time when he has seen fit to take away my disgrace before others.”

26 10 In the sixth month, the angel Gabriel was sent from God to a town of Galilee called Nazareth,

27 to a virgin betrothed to a man named Joseph, of the house of David, and the virgin’s name was Mary.

28 And coming to her, he said, “Hail, favored one! The Lord is with you.”

29 But she was greatly troubled at what was said and pondered what sort of greeting this might be.

30 Then the angel said to her, “Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God.

31 Behold, you will conceive in your womb and bear a son, and you shall name him Jesus.

32 He will be great and will be called Son of the Most High, 11 and the Lord God will give him the throne of David his father,

33 and he will rule over the house of Jacob forever, and of his kingdom there will be no end.”

34 But Mary said to the angel, “How can this be, since I have no relations with a man?” 12

35 And the angel said to her in reply, “The holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. Therefore the child to be born will be called holy, the Son of God.

36 And behold, Elizabeth, your relative, has also conceived 13 a son in her old age, and this is the sixth month for her who was called barren;

37 for nothing will be impossible for God.”

38 Mary said, “Behold, I am the handmaid of the Lord. May it be done to me according to your word.” Then the angel departed from her.

39 During those days Mary set out and traveled to the hill country in haste to a town of Judah,

40 where she entered the house of Zechariah and greeted Elizabeth.

41 When Elizabeth heard Mary’s greeting, the infant leaped in her womb, and Elizabeth, filled with the holy Spirit,

42 cried out in a loud voice and said, “Most blessed are you among women, and blessed is the fruit of your womb.

43 And how does this happen to me, that the mother of my Lord 14 should come to me?

44 For at the moment the sound of your greeting reached my ears, the infant in my womb leaped for joy.

45 Blessed are you who believed 15 that what was spoken to you by the Lord would be fulfilled.”

46 And Mary said: 16 “My soul proclaims the greatness of the Lord;

47 my spirit rejoices in God my savior.

48 For he has looked upon his handmaid’s lowliness; behold, from now on will all ages call me blessed.

49 The Mighty One has done great things for me, and holy is his name.

50 His mercy is from age to age to those who fear him.

51 He has shown might with his arm, dispersed the arrogant of mind and heart.

52 He has thrown down the rulers from their thrones but lifted up the lowly.

53 The hungry he has filled with good things; the rich he has sent away empty.

54 He has helped Israel his servant, remembering his mercy,

55 according to his promise to our fathers, to Abraham and to his descendants forever.”

56 Mary remained with her about three months and then returned to her home.

57 17 When the time arrived for Elizabeth to have her child she gave birth to a son.

58 Her neighbors and relatives heard that the Lord had shown his great mercy toward her, and they rejoiced with her.

59 18 When they came on the eighth day to circumcise the child, they were going to call him Zechariah after his father,

60 but his mother said in reply, “No. He will be called John.”

61 But they answered her, “There is no one among your relatives who has this name.”

62 So they made signs, asking his father what he wished him to be called.

63 He asked for a tablet and wrote, “John is his name,” and all were amazed.

64 Immediately his mouth was opened, his tongue freed, and he spoke blessing God.

65 Then fear came upon all their neighbors, and all these matters were discussed throughout the hill country of Judea.

66 All who heard these things took them to heart, saying, “What, then, will this child be?” For surely the hand of the Lord was with him.

67 Then Zechariah his father, filled with the holy Spirit, prophesied, saying:

68 19 “Blessed be the Lord, the God of Israel, for he has visited and brought redemption to his people.

69 20 He has raised up a horn for our salvation within the house of David his servant,

70 even as he promised through the mouth of his holy prophets from of old:

71 salvation from our enemies and from the hand of all who hate us,

72 to show mercy to our fathers and to be mindful of his holy covenant

73 and of the oath he swore to Abraham our father, and to grant us that,

74 rescued from the hand of enemies, without fear we might worship him

75 in holiness and righteousness before him all our days.

76 And you, child, will be called prophet of the Most High, for you will go before the Lord 21 to prepare his ways,

77 to give his people knowledge of salvation through the forgiveness of their sins,

78 because of the tender mercy of our God by which the daybreak from on high 22 will visit us

79 to shine on those who sit in darkness and death’s shadow, to guide our feet into the path of peace.”

80 The child grew and became strong in spirit, and he was in the desert until the day of his manifestation to Israel.

 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 

17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

OLD TESTAMENT

THE GOSPELS 

NEW TESTAMENT

 1 [1-4] The Gospel according to Luke is the only one of the synoptic gospels to begin with a literary prologue. Making use of a formal, literary construction and vocabulary, the author writes the prologue in imitation of Hellenistic Greek writers and, in so doing, relates his story about Jesus to contemporaneous Greek and Roman literature. Luke is not only interested in the words and deeds of Jesus, but also in the larger context of the birth, ministry, death, and resurrection of Jesus as the fulfillment of the promises of God in the Old Testament. As a second- or third-generation Christian, Luke acknowledges his debt to earlier eyewitnesses and ministers of the word, but claims that his contribution to this developing tradition is a complete and accurate account, told in an orderly anner, and intended to provide Theophilus (“friend of God,” literally) and other readers with certainty about earlier teachings they have received.

2 [⇒ 1:5-⇒ 2:52] Like the Gospel according to Matthew, this gospel opens with an infancy narrative, a collection of stories about the birth and childhood of Jesus. The narrative uses early Christian traditions about the birth of Jesus, traditions about the birth and circumcision of John the Baptist, and canticles such as the Magnificat (⇒ Luke 1:46-55) and Benedictus (⇒ Luke 1:67-79), composed of phrases drawn from the Greek Old Testament. It is largely, however, the composition of Luke who writes in imitation of Old Testament birth stories, combining historical and legendary details, literary ornamentation and interpretation of scripture, to answer in advance the question, “Who is Jesus Christ?” The focus of the narrative, therefore, is primarily christological. In this section Luke announces many of the themes that will become prominent in the rest of the gospel: the centrality of Jerusalem and the temple, the journey motif, the universality of salvation, joy and peace, concern for the lowly, the importance of women, the presentation of Jesus as savior, Spirit-guided revelation and prophecy, and the fulfillment of Old Testament promises. The account presents parallel scenes (diptychs) of angelic announcements of the birth of John the Baptist and of Jesus, and of the birth, circumcision, and presentation of John and Jesus. In this parallelism, the ascendency of Jesus over John is stressed: John is prophet of the Most High (⇒ Luke 1:76); Jesus is Son of the Most High (⇒ Luke 1:32). John is great in the sight of the Lord (⇒ Luke 1:15); Jesus will be Great (a LXX attribute, used absolutely, of God) (⇒ Luke 1:32). John will go before the Lord (⇒ Luke 1:16-17); Jesus will be Lord (⇒Luke 1:43; ⇒ 2:11).

3 [5] In the days of Herod, King of Judea: Luke relates the story of salvation history to events in contemporary world history. Here and in ⇒ Luke 3:1-2 he connects his narrative with events in Palestinian history; in ⇒ Luke 2:1-2 and ⇒ Luke 3:1 he casts the Jesus story in the light of events of Roman history. Herod the Great, the son of the Idumean Antipater, was declared “King of Judea” by the Roman Senate in 40 B.C., but became the undisputed ruler of Palestine only in 37 B.C. He continued as king until his death in 4 B.C. Priestly division of Abijah: a reference to the eighth of the twenty-four divisions of priests who, for a week at a time, twice a year, served in the Jerusalem temple.

4 [7] They had no child: though childlessness was looked upon in contemporaneous Judaism as a curse or punishment for sin, it is intended here to present Elizabeth in a situation similar to that of some of the great mothers of important Old Testament figures: Sarah (⇒ Genesis 15:3; ⇒ 16:1); Rebekah (⇒ Genesis 25:21); Rachel (⇒ Genesis 29:31; ⇒ 30:1); the mother of Samson and wife of Manoah (⇒ Judges 13:2-3); Hannah (⇒ 1 Sam 1:2).

5 [13] Do not be afraid: a stereotyped Old Testament phrase spoken to reassure the recipient of a heavenly vision (⇒ Genesis 15:1; ⇒ Joshua 1:9; ⇒ Daniel 10:12, ⇒ 19 and elsewhere in ⇒ Luke 1:30; ⇒ 2:10). You shall name him John: the name means “Yahweh has shown favor,” an indication of John’s role in salvation history.

6 [15] He will drink neither wine nor strong drink: like Samson (⇒ Judges 13:4-5) and Samuel (⇒ 1 Sam 1:11 LXX and 4QSama), John is to be consecrated by Nazirite vow and set apart for the Lord’s service.

7 [17] He will go before him in the spirit and power of Elijah: John is to be the messenger sent before Yahweh, as described in ⇒ Malachi 3:1-2. He is cast, moreover, in the role of the Old Testament fiery reformer, the prophet Elijah, who according to ⇒ Malachi 3:23 (4 :5) is sent before “the great and terrible day of the Lord comes.”

8 [19] I am Gabriel: “the angel of the Lord” is identified as Gabriel, the angel who in ⇒ Daniel 9:20-25 announces the seventy weeks of years and the coming of an anointed one, a prince. By alluding to Old Testament themes in ⇒ Luke 1:17, ⇒19 such as the coming of the day of the Lord and the dawning of the messianic era, Luke is presenting his interpretation of the significance of the births of John and Jesus.

9 [20] You will be speechless and unable to talk: Zechariah’s becoming mute is the sign given in response to his question in v 18. When Mary asks a similar question in ⇒ Luke 1:34, unlike Zechariah who was punished for his doubt, she, in spite of her doubt, is praised and reassured(⇒ Luke 1:35-37).

10 [26-38] The announcement to Mary of the birth of Jesus is parallel to the announcement to Zechariah of the birth of John. In both the angel Gabriel appears to the parent who is troubled by the vision (⇒ Luke 1:11-12, ⇒ 26-29) and then told by the angel not to fear (⇒ Luke 1:13, ⇒ 30). After the announcement is made (⇒ Luke 1:14-17, ⇒ 31-33) the parent objects (⇒ Luke 1:18, ⇒ 34) and a sign is given to confirm the announcement (⇒ Luke 1:20, ⇒ 36). The particular focus of the announcement of the birth of Jesus is on his identity as Son of David (⇒ Luke 1:32-33) and Son of God (⇒ Luke 1:32, ⇒ 35).

11 [32] Son of the Most High: cf ⇒ Luke 1:76 where John is described as “prophet of the Most High.” “Most High” is a title for God commonly used by Luke (⇒ Luke 1:35, ⇒ 76; ⇒ 6:35; ⇒ 8:28; ⇒ Acts 7:48; ⇒ 16:17).

12 [34] Mary’s questioning response is a denial of sexual relations and is used by Luke to lead to the angel’s declaration about the Spirit’s role in the conception of this child (⇒ Luke 1:35). According to Luke, the virginal conception of Jesus takes place through the holy Spirit, the power of God, and therefore Jesus has a unique relationship to Yahweh: he is Son of God.

13 [36-37] The sign given to Mary in confirmation of the angel’s announcement to her is the pregnancy of her aged relative Elizabeth. If a woman past the childbearing age could become pregnant, why, the angel implies, should there be doubt about Mary’s pregnancy, for nothing will be impossible for God.

14 [43] Even before his birth, Jesus is identified in Luke as the Lord.

15 [45] Blessed are you who believed: Luke portrays Mary as a believer whose faith stands in contrast to the disbelief of Zechariah (⇒ Luke 1:20). Mary’s role as believer in the infancy narrative should be seen in connection with the explicit mention of her presence among “those who believed” after the resurrection at the beginning of the Acts of the Apostles (⇒ Acts 1:14).

16 [46-55] Although Mary is praised for being the mother of the Lord and because of her belief, she reacts as the servant in a psalm of praise, the Magnificat. Because there is no specific connection of the canticle to the context of Mary’s pregnancy and her visit to Elizabeth, the Magnificat (with the possible exception of v 48) may have been a Jewish Christian hymn that Luke found appropriate at this point in his story. Even if not composed by Luke, it fits in well with themes found elsewhere in Luke: joy and exultation in the Lord; the lowly being singled out for God’s favor; the reversal of human fortunes; the fulfillment of Old Testament promises. The loose connection between the hymn and the context is further seen in the fact that a few Old Latin manuscripts identify the speaker of the hymn as Elizabeth, even though the overwhelming textual evidence makes Mary the speaker.

17 [57-66] The birth and circumcision of John above all emphasize John’s incorporation into the people of Israel by the sign of the covenant (⇒ Genesis 17:1-12). The narrative of John’s circumcision also prepares the way for the subsequent description of the circumcision of Jesus in ⇒ Luke 2:21. At the beginning of his two-volume work Luke shows those who play crucial roles in the inauguration of Christianity to be wholly a part of the people of Israel. At the end of the Acts of the Apostles (⇒ Acts 21:20; ⇒ 22:3; ⇒ 23:6-9; ⇒ 24:14-16; ⇒ 26:2-8, ⇒ 22-23) he will argue that Christianity is the direct descendant of Pharisaic Judaism.

18 [59] The practice of Palestinian Judaism at this time was to name the child at birth; moreover, though naming a male child after the father is not completely unknown, the usual practice was to name the child after the grandfather (see ⇒ Luke 1:61). The naming of the child John and Zechariah’s recovery from his loss of speech should be understood as fulfilling the angel’s announcement to Zechariah in ⇒ Luke 1:13, ⇒ 20.

19 [68-79] Like the canticle of Mary (⇒ Luke 1:46-55) the canticle of Zechariah is only loosely connected with its context. Apart from ⇒ Luke 1:76-77, the hymn in speaking of a horn for our salvation (⇒ Luke 1:69) and the daybreak from on high (⇒ Luke 1:78) applies more closely to Jesus and his work than to John. Again like Mary’s canticle, it is largely composed of phrases taken from the Greek Old Testament and may have been a Jewish Christian hymn of praise that Luke adapted to fit the present context by inserting ⇒ Luke 1:76-77 to give Zechariah’s reply to the question asked in ⇒ Luke 1:66.

20 [69] A horn for our salvation: the horn is a common Old Testament figure for strength (⇒ Psalm 18:3; ⇒ 75:5-6; ⇒ 89:18; ⇒ 112:9; ⇒ 148:14). This description is applied to God in ⇒ Psalm 18:2 and is here transferred to Jesus. The connection of the phrase with the house of David gives the title messianic overtones and may indicate an allusion to a phrase in Hannah’s song of praise (⇒ 1 Sam 2:10), “the horn of his anointed.”

21 [76] You will go before the Lord: here the Lord is most likely a reference to Jesus (contrast ⇒ Luke 1:15-17 where Yahweh is meant) and John is presented as the precursor of Jesus.

22 [78] The daybreak from on high: three times in the LXX (⇒ Jeremiah 23:5; ⇒ Zechariah 3:8; ⇒ 6:12), the Greek word used here for daybreak translates the Hebrew word for “scion, branch,” an Old Testament messianic title.

 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 

17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

OLD TESTAMENT

THE GOSPELS 

NEW TESTAMENT

MARK – CHAPTER 1

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

 10. 1112. 131415. 16.

Chapter 1

1

1 2 The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ (the Son of God).

2

As it is written in Isaiah the prophet: 3 “Behold, I am sending my messenger ahead of you; he will prepare your way.

3

A voice of one crying out in the desert: ‘Prepare the way of the Lord, make straight his paths.'”

4

John (the) Baptist appeared in the desert proclaiming a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins.

5

People of the whole Judean countryside and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem were going out to him and were being baptized by him in the Jordan River as they acknowledged their sins.

6

John was clothed in camel’s hair, with a leather belt around his waist. 4 He fed on locusts and wild honey.

7

And this is what he proclaimed: “One mightier than I is coming after me. I am not worthy to stoop and loosen the thongs of his sandals.

8

5 I have baptized you with water; he will baptize you with the holy Spirit.”

9

It happened in those days that Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee and was baptized in the Jordan by John.

10

On coming up out of the water he saw the heavens being torn open and the Spirit, like a dove, descending upon him. 6

11

And a voice came from the heavens, “You are my beloved Son; with you I am well pleased.”

12

7 At once the Spirit drove him out into the desert,

13

and he remained in the desert for forty days, tempted by Satan. He was among wild beasts, and the angels ministered to him.

14

After John had been arrested, 8 Jesus came to Galilee proclaiming the gospel of God:

15

“This is the time of fulfillment. The kingdom of God is at hand. Repent, and believe in the gospel.”

16

9 As he passed by the Sea of Galilee, he saw Simon and his brother Andrew casting their nets into the sea; they were fishermen.

17

Jesus said to them, “Come after me, and I will make you fishers of men.”

18

Then they abandoned their nets and followed him.

19

He walked along a little farther and saw James, the son of Zebedee, and his brother John. They too were in a boat mending their nets.

20

Then he called them. So they left their father Zebedee in the boat along with the hired men and followed him.

21

10 Then they came to Capernaum, and on the sabbath he entered the synagogue and taught.

22

The people were astonished at his teaching, for he taught them as one having authority and not as the scribes.

23

11 In their synagogue was a man with an unclean spirit;

24

12 he cried out, “What have you to do with us, 13 Jesus of Nazareth? Have you come to destroy us? I know who you are – the Holy One of God!”

25

Jesus rebuked him and said, “Quiet! Come out of him!”

26

The unclean spirit convulsed him and with a loud cry came out of him.

27

All were amazed and asked one another, “What is this? A new teaching with authority. He commands even the unclean spirits and they obey him.”

28

His fame spread everywhere throughout the whole region of Galilee.

29

On leaving the synagogue he entered the house of Simon and Andrew with James and John.

30

Simon’s mother-in-law lay sick with a fever. They immediately told him about her.

31

He approached, grasped her hand, and helped her up. Then the fever left her and she waited on them.

32

When it was evening, after sunset, they brought to him all who were ill or possessed by demons.

33

The whole town was gathered at the door.

34

He cured many who were sick with various diseases, and he drove out many demons, not permitting them to speak because they knew him.

35

Rising very early before dawn, he left and went off to a deserted place, where he prayed.

36

Simon and those who were with him pursued him

37

and on finding him said, “Everyone is looking for you.”

38

He told them, “Let us go on to the nearby villages that I may preach there also. For this purpose have I come.”

39

So he went into their synagogues, preaching and driving out demons throughout the whole of Galilee.

40

A leper 14 came to him (and kneeling down) begged him and said, “If you wish, you can make me clean.”

41

Moved with pity, he stretched out his hand, touched him, and said to him, “I do will it. Be made clean.”

42

The leprosy left him immediately, and he was made clean.

43

Then, warning him sternly, he dismissed him at once.

44

Then he said to him, “See that you tell no one anything, but go, show yourself to the priest and offer for your cleansing what Moses prescribed; that will be proof for them.”

45

The man went away and began to publicize the whole matter. He spread the report abroad so that it was impossible for Jesus to enter a town openly. He remained outside in deserted places, and people kept coming to him from everywhere. 

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

 10. 1112. 131415. 16.

OLD TESTAMENT  – THE GOSPELS – NEW  TESTAMENT 

1 [1-13] The prologue of the Gospel according to Mark begins with the title (⇒ Mark 1:1) followed by three events preparatory to Jesus’ preaching: (1) the appearance in the Judean wilderness of John, baptizer, preacher of repentance, and precursor of Jesus (⇒ Mark 1:2-8); (2) the baptism of Jesus, at which a voice from heaven acknowledges Jesus to be God’s Son, and the holy Spirit descends on him (⇒ Mark 1:9-11); (3) the temptation of Jesus by Satan (⇒ Mark 1:12-13).

2 [1] The gospel of Jesus Christ [the Son of God]: the “good news” of salvation in and through Jesus, crucified and risen, acknowledged by the Christian community as Messiah (⇒ Mark 8:29; ⇒ 14:61-62) and Son of God (⇒ Mark 1:11; ⇒ 9:7; ⇒ 15:39), although some important manuscripts here omit the Son of God.

3 [2-3] Although Mark attributes the prophecy to Isaiah, the text is a combination of ⇒ Malachi 3:1; ⇒ Isaiah 40:3; ⇒ Exodus 23:20; cf ⇒ Matthew 11:10; ⇒ Luke 7:27. John’s ministry is seen as God’s prelude to the saving mission of his Son. The way of the Lord: this prophecy of Deutero-Isaiah concerning the end of the Babylonian exile is here applied to the coming of Jesus; John the Baptist is to prepare the way for him.

4 [6] Clothed in camel’s hair . . . waist: the Baptist’s garb recalls that of Elijah in ⇒ 2 Kings 1:8. Jesus speaks of the Baptist as Elijah who has already come (⇒ Mark 9:11-13; ⇒ Matthew 17:10-12; cf ⇒ Malachi 3:23-24; ⇒ Luke 1:17).

5 [8-9] Through the life-giving baptism with the holy Spirit (⇒ Mark 1:8), Jesus will create a new people of God. But first he identifies himself with the people of Israel in submitting to John’s baptism of repentance and in bearing on their behalf the burden of God’s decisive judgment (⇒ Mark 1:9; cf ⇒ Mark 1:4). As in the desert of Sinai, so here in the wilderness of Judea, Israel’s sonship with God is to be renewed.

6 [10-11] He saw the heavens . . . and the Spirit . . . upon him: indicating divine intervention in fulfillment of promise. Here the descent of the Spirit on Jesus is meant, anointing him for his ministry; cf ⇒ Isaiah 11:2; ⇒ 42:1; ⇒ 61:1; ⇒ 63:9. A voice . . . with you I am well pleased: God’s acknowledgment of Jesus as his unique Son, the object of his love. His approval of Jesus is the assurance that Jesus will fulfill his messianic mission of salvation.

7 [12-13] The same Spirit who descended on Jesus in his baptism now drives him into the desert for forty days. The result is radical confrontation and temptation by Satan who attempts to frustrate the work of God. The presence of wild beasts may indicate the horror and danger of the desert regarded as the abode of demons or may reflect the paradise motif of harmony among all creatures; cf ⇒ Isaiah 11:6-9. The presence of ministering angels to sustain Jesus recalls the angel who guided the Israelites in the desert in the first Exodus (⇒ Exodus 14:19; ⇒ 23:20) and the angel who supplied nourishment to Elijah in the wilderness (⇒ 1 Kings 19:5-7). The combined forces of good and evil were present to Jesus in the desert. His sustained obedience brings forth the new Israel of God there where Israel’s rebellion had brought death and alienation.

8 [14-15] After John had been arrested: in the plan of God, Jesus was not to proclaim the good news of salvation prior to the termination of the Baptist’s active mission. Galilee: in the Marcan account, scene of the major part of Jesus’ public ministry before his arrest and condemnation. The gospel of God: not only the good news from God but about God at work in Jesus Christ. This is the time of fulfillment: i.e., of God’s promises. The kingdom of God . . . repent: see the note on ⇒ Matthew 3:2.

9 [16-20] These verses narrate the call of the first Disciples. See the notes on ⇒ Matthew 4:18-22 and ⇒ Matthew 4:20.

10 [21-45] The account of a single day’s ministry of Jesus on a sabbath in and outside the synagogue of Capernaum (⇒ Mark 1:21-31) combines teaching and miracles of exorcism and healing. Mention is not made of the content of the teaching but of the effect of astonishment and alarm on the people. Jesus’ teaching with authority, making an absolute claim on the hearer, was in the best tradition of the ancient prophets, not of the scribes. The narrative continues with events that evening (⇒ Mark 1:32-34; see the notes on ⇒ Matthew 8:14-17) and the next day (⇒ Mark 1:35-39). The cleansing in ⇒ Mark 1:40-45 stands as an isolated story.

11 [23] An unclean spirit: so called because of the spirit’s resistance to the holiness of God. The spirit knows and fears the power of Jesus to destroy his influence; cf ⇒ Mark 1:32, ⇒ 34; ⇒ 3:11; ⇒ 6:13.

12 [24-25] The Holy One of God: not a confession but an attempt to ward off Jesus’ power, reflecting the notion that use of the precise name of an opposing spirit would guarantee mastery over him. Jesus silenced the cry of the unclean spirit and drove him out of the man.

13 [24] What have you to do with us?: see the note on ⇒ John 2:4.

14 [40] A leper: for the various forms of skin disease, see ⇒ Lev 13:1-50 and the note on ⇒ Lev 13:2-4. There are only two instances in the Old Testament in which God is shown to have cured a leper (⇒ Numbers 12:10-15; ⇒ 2 Kings 5:1-14). The law of Moses provided for the ritual purification of a leper. In curing the leper, Jesus assumes that the priests will reinstate the cured man into the religious community. See also the note on ⇒ Luke 5:14.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

 10. 1112. 131415. 16.

OLD TESTAMENT  – THE GOSPELS – NEW  TESTAMENT 

THE GOSPELS

Matthew – Mark – Luke – John

Matthew 

1. 234567. 89. 10. 

1112. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 

20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 2728.

Mark

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

 10. 1112. 131415. 16.

Luke 

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 

17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

 John

 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  11. 

12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

OLD TESTAMENT  ANTIGUO TESTAMENTOTHE GOSPELS EVANGELIOS – NEW  TESTAMENT – NUEVO TESTAMENTO