Exodus – Chapter 1 – Index

Exodus

12. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 

12. 13.  14. 15. 16. 17.18. 19. 

20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 2526. 27. 

28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 

36. 37. 38. 39. 40.

Chapter 1

1

1 These are the names of the sons of Israel who, accompanied by their households, migrated with Jacob into Egypt:

2

2 Reuben, Simeon, Levi and Judah;

3

Issachar, Zebulun and Benjamin;

4

Dan and Naphtali; Gad and Asher.

5

3 The total number of the direct descendants of Jacob was seventy. Joseph was already in Egypt.

6

Now Joseph and all his brothers and that whole generation died.

7

But the Israelites were fruitful and prolific. They became so numerous and strong that the land was filled with them.

8

Then a new king, who knew nothing of Joseph 4 , came to power in Egypt.

9

He said to his subjects, “Look how numerous and powerful the Israelite people are growing, more so than we ourselves!

10

Come, let us deal shrewdly with them to stop their increase; otherwise, in time of war they too may join our enemies to fight against us, and so leave our country.”

11

5 Accordingly, taskmasters were set over the Israelites to oppress them with forced labor. Thus they had to build for Pharaoh the supply cities of Pithom and Raamses.

12

Yet the more they were oppressed, the more they multiplied and spread. The Egyptians, then, dreaded the Israelites

13

and reduced them to cruel slavery,

14

6 making life bitter for them with hard work in mortar and brick and all kinds of field work – the whole cruel fate of slaves.

15

The king of Egypt told the Hebrew midwives, one of whom was called Shiphrah and the other Puah,

16

7 When you act as midwives for the Hebrew women and see them giving birth, if it is a boy, kill him; but if it is a girl, she may live.”

17

The midwives, however, feared God; they did not do as the king of Egypt had ordered them, but let the boys live.

18

So the king summoned the midwives and asked them, “Why have you acted thus, allowing the boys to live?”

19

The midwives answered Pharaoh, “The Hebrew women are not like the Egyptian women. They are robust and give birth before the midwife arrives.”

20

Therefore God dealt well with the midwives. The people, too, increased and grew strong.

21

And because the midwives feared God, he built up families for them.

22

8 Pharaoh then commanded all his subjects, “Throw into the river every boy that is born to the Hebrews, but you may let all the girls live.”

 

1 [1] Sons of Israel: here literally the first-generation sons of Jacob. Cf Genesis 1:5. However, beginning with Exodus 1:7 the same Hebrew phrase refers to the more remote descendants of Jacob; hence, from here on, it is ordinarily rendered “the Israelites.” Households: the family in its fullest sense, including wives, children and servants.

2 [2] The sons of Jacob are listed here according to the respective mothers. Cf Genesis 29:31; 30:20; 35:16-26

3 [5] Direct descendants: literally, persons coming from the loins of Jacob; hence, wives and servants are here excluded. Cf Genesis 46:26

4 [8] Who knew nothing of Joseph: this king ignored the services that Joseph had rendered to Egypt.

5 [11] Pharaoh: not a personal name, but a title common to all the kings of Egypt.

6 [14] Mortar: either the wet clay with which the bricks were made, as in Nahum 3:14, or the cement used between the bricks in building, as in Genesis 11:3

7 [16] And see them giving birth: the Hebrew text is uncertain.

8 [22] The river: the Nile, which was “the” river for the Egyptians.[:zh]

Exodus

12. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 

12. 13.  14. 15. 16. 17.18. 19. 

20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 2526. 27. 

28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 

36. 37. 38. 39. 40.

Chapter 1

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BOOK OF REVELATION – Chapter 1 – Index

123456. 78910. 1112

13. 1415. 161718. 19. 20. 2122.

Chapter 1

1 The revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave to him, to show his servants what must happen soon. He made it known by sending his angel to his servant John,

who gives witness to the word of God and to the testimony of Jesus Christ by reporting what he saw.

Blessed is the one 2 who reads aloud and blessed are those who listen to this prophetic message and heed what is written in it, for the appointed time is near.

3 John, to the seven churches in Asia: 4 grace to you and peace from him who is and who was and who is to come, and from the seven spirits before his throne,

and from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead and ruler of the kings of the earth. To him who loves us and has freed us 5 from our sins by his blood,

who has made us into a kingdom, priests for his God and Father, to him be glory and power forever (and ever). Amen.

Behold, he is coming amid the clouds, and every eye will see him, even those who pierced him. All the peoples of the earth will lament him. Yes. Amen.

“I am the Alpha and the Omega,” 6 says the Lord God, “the one who is and who was and who is to come, the almighty.”

7 I, John, your brother, who share with you the distress, the kingdom, and the endurance we have in Jesus, found myself on the island called Patmos 8 because I proclaimed God’s word and gave testimony to Jesus.

10 I was caught up in spirit on the Lord’s day 9 and heard behind me a voice as loud as a trumpet,

11 which said, “Write on a scroll 10 what you see and send it to the seven churches: to Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea.”

12 11 Then I turned to see whose voice it was that spoke to me, and when I turned, I saw seven gold lampstands

13 and in the midst of the lampstands one like a son of man, 12 wearing an ankle-length robe, with a gold sash around his chest.

14 The hair of his head was as white as white wool or as snow, 13 and his eyes were like a fiery flame.

15 His feet were like polished brass refined in a furnace, 14 and his voice was like the sound of rushing water.

16 In his right hand he held seven stars. 15 A sharp two-edged sword came out of his mouth, and his face shone like the sun at its brightest.

17 When I caught sight of him, I fell down at his feet as though dead. 16 He touched me with his right hand and said, “Do not be afraid. I am the first and the last,

18 the one who lives. Once I was dead, but now I am alive forever and ever. I hold the keys to death and the netherworld. 17

19 Write down, therefore, what you have seen, and what is happening, and what will happen afterwards. 18

20 This is the secret meaning 19 of the seven stars you saw in my right hand, and of the seven gold lampstands: the seven stars are the angels of the seven churches, and the seven lampstands are the seven churches.

123456. 78910. 1112

13. 1415. 161718. 19. 20. 2122.

 1 [1-3] This prologue describes the source, contents, and audience of the book and forms an inclusion with the epilogue ( Rev 22:6-21), with its similar themes and expressions.

2 [3] Blessed is the one: this is the first of seven beatitudes in this book; the others are in Rev 14:13; 16:15; 19:9; 20:6; 22:7, 14. This prophetic message: literally, “the words of the prophecy”; so Rev 22:7, 10, 18, 19 by inclusion. The appointed time: when Jesus will return in glory; cf Rev 1:7; 3:11; 22:7, 10, 12, 20.

3 [4-8] Although Revelation begins and ends ( Rev 22:21) with Christian epistolary formulae, there is nothing between Rev 4; 22 resembling a letter. The author here employs the standard word order for greetings in Greek letter writing: “N. to N., greetings . . .”; see the note on Romans 1:1.

4 [4] Seven churches in Asia: Asia refers to the Roman province of that name in western Asia Minor (modern Turkey); these representative churches are mentioned by name in Rev 1:11, and each is the recipient of a message ( Rev 2:1- 3:22). Seven is the biblical number suggesting fullness and completeness; thus the seer is writing for the whole church.

5 [5] Freed us: the majority of Greek manuscripts and several early versions read “washed us”; but “freed us” is supported by the best manuscripts and fits well with Old Testament imagery, e.g., Isaiah 40:2.

6 [8] The Alpha and the Omega: the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet. In Rev 22:13 the same words occur together with the expressions “the First and the Last, the Beginning and the End”; cf Rev 1:17; 2:8; 21:6; Isaiah 41:4; 44:6.

7 [9-20] In this first vision, the seer is commanded to write what he sees to the seven churches ( Rev 1:9-11). He sees Christ in glory, whom he depicts in stock apocalyptic imagery ( Rev 1:12-16), and hears him describe himself in terms meant to encourage Christians by emphasizing his victory over death ( Rev 1:17-20).

8 [9] Island called Patmos: one of the Sporades islands in the Aegean Sea, some fifty miles south of Ephesus, used by the Romans as a penal colony. Because I proclaimed God’s word: literally, “on account of God’s word.”

9 [10] The Lord’s day: Sunday. As loud as a trumpet: the imagery is derived from the theophany at Sinai ( Exodus 19:16, 19; cf Hebrews 12:19 and the trumpet in other eschatological settings in Isaiah 27:13; Joel 2:1; Matthew 24:31; 1 Cor 15:52; 1 Thes 4:16).

10 [11] Scroll: a papyrus roll.

11 [12-16] A symbolic description of Christ in glory. The metaphorical language is not to be understood literally; cf Introduction.

12 [13] Son of man: see the note on Mark 8:31. Ankle-length robe: Christ is priest; cf Exodus 28:4; 29:5; Wisdom 18:24; Zechariah 3:4. Gold sash: Christ is king; cf Exodus 28:4; 1 Macc 10:89; 11:58; Daniel 10:5.

13 [14] Hair . . . as white as white wool or as snow: Christ is eternal, clothed with the dignity that belonged to the “Ancient of Days”; cf Rev 1:18; Daniel 7:9. His eyes were like a fiery flame: Christ is portrayed as all-knowing; cf Rev 2:23; Psalm 7:10; Jeremiah 17:10; and similar expressions in Rev 2:18; 19:12; cf Daniel 10:6.

14 [15] His feet . . . furnace: Christ is depicted as unchangeable; cf Ezekiel 1:27; Daniel 10:6. The Greek word translated “refined” is unconnected grammatically with any other word in the sentence. His voice . . . water: Christ speaks with divine authority; cf Ezekiel 1:24.

15 [16] Seven stars: in the pagan world, Mithras and the Caesars were represented with seven stars in their right hand, symbolizing their universal dominion. A sharp two-edged sword: this refers to the word of God (cf Eph 6:17; Hebrews 4:12) that will destroy unrepentant sinners; cf Rev 2:16; 19:15; Wisdom 18:15; Isaiah 11:4; 49:2. His face . . . brightest: this symbolizes the divine majesty of Christ; cf Rev 10:1; 21:23; Judges 5:31; Isaiah 60:19; Matthew 17:2.

16 [17] It was an Old Testament belief that for sinful human beings to see God was to die; cf Exodus 19:21; 33:20; Judges 6:22-23; Isaiah 6:5.

17 [18] Netherworld: Greek Hades, Hebrew Sheol, the abode of the dead; cf Rev 20:13-14; Numbers 16:33.

18 [19] What you have seen, and what is happening, and what will happen afterwards: the three parts of the Book of Revelation, the vision ( Rev 1:10-20), the situation in the seven churches (Rev 2-3), and the events of Rev 6-22.

19 [20] Secret meaning: literally, “mystery.” Angels: these are the presiding spirits of the seven churches. Angels were thought to be in charge of the physical world (cf Rev 7:1; 14:18; 16:5) and of nations ( Daniel 10:13; 12:1), communities (the seven churches), and individuals ( Matthew 18:10; Acts 12:15). Some have seen in the “angel” of each of the seven churches its pastor or a personification of the spirit of the congregation.

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13. 1415. 161718. 19. 20. 2122.

 

ROMANS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 67. 89.

 1011. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

1 2 Paul, a slave of Christ Jesus, called to be an apostle and set apart for the gospel of God,

which he promised previously through his prophets in the holy scriptures,

3 the gospel about his Son, descended from David according to the flesh,

but established as Son of God in power according to the spirit of holiness through resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord.

4 Through him we have received the grace of apostleship, to bring about the obedience of faith, for the sake of his name, among all the Gentiles,

among whom are you also, who are called to belong to Jesus Christ;

to all the beloved of God in Rome, called to be holy. 5 Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

First, I give thanks 6 to my God through Jesus Christ for all of you, because your faith is heralded throughout the world.

God is my witness, whom I serve with my spirit in proclaiming the gospel of his Son, that I remember you constantly,

10 7 always asking in my prayers that somehow by God’s will I may at last find my way clear to come to you.

11 For I long to see you, that I may share with you some spiritual gift so that you may be strengthened,

12 that is, that you and I may be mutually encouraged by one another’s faith, yours and mine.

13 I do not want you to be unaware, brothers, 8 that I often planned to come to you, though I was prevented until now, that I might harvest some fruit among you, too, as among the rest of the Gentiles.

14 To Greeks 9 and non-Greeks alike, to the wise and the ignorant, I am under obligation;

15 that is why I am eager to preach the gospel also to you in Rome.

16 10 For I am not ashamed of the gospel. It is the power of God for the salvation of everyone who believes: for Jew first, and then Greek.

17 For in it is revealed the righteousness of God from faith to faith; 11 as it is written, “The one who is righteous by faith will live.”

18 12 The wrath 13 of God 14 is indeed being revealed from heaven against every impiety and wickedness of those who suppress the truth by their wickedness.

19 For what can be known about God is evident to them, because God made it evident to them.

20 Ever since the creation of the world, his invisible attributes of eternal power and divinity have been able to be understood and perceived in what he has made. As a result, they have no excuse;

21 for although they knew God they did not accord him glory as God or give him thanks. Instead, they became vain in their reasoning, and their senseless minds were darkened.

22 While claiming to be wise, they became fools

23 and exchanged the glory of the immortal God for the likeness of an image of mortal man or of birds or of four-legged animals or of snakes.

24 Therefore, God handed them over to impurity through the lusts of their hearts 15 for the mutual degradation of their bodies.

25 They exchanged the truth of God for a lie and revered and worshiped the creature rather than the creator, who is blessed forever. Amen.

26 Therefore, God handed them over to degrading passions. Their females exchanged natural relations for unnatural,

27 and the males likewise gave up natural relations with females and burned with lust for one another. Males did shameful things with males and thus received in their own persons the due penalty for their perversity.

28 And since they did not see fit to acknowledge God, God handed them over to their undiscerning mind to do what is improper.

29 They are filled with every form of wickedness, evil, greed, and malice; full of envy, murder, rivalry, treachery, and spite. They are gossips

30 and scandalmongers and they hate God. They are insolent, haughty, boastful, ingenious in their wickedness, and rebellious toward their parents.

31 They are senseless, faithless, heartless, ruthless.

32 Although they know the just decree of God that all who practice such things deserve death, they not only do them but give approval to those who practice them. 

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 67. 89.

 1011. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

 1 [1-7] In Paul’s letters the greeting or praescriptio follows a standard form, though with variations. It is based upon the common Greco-Roman epistolary practice, but with the addition of Semitic and specifically Christian elements. The three basic components are: name of sender; name of addressee; greeting. In identifying himself, Paul often adds phrases to describe his apostolic mission; this element is more developed in Romans than in any other letter. Elsewhere he associates co-workers with himself in the greeting: Sosthenes (1 Cor), Timothy (2 Cor; Phil; Phl) Silvanus (1 Thes – 2 Thes). The standard secular greeting was the infinitive chairein, “greetings.” Paul uses instead the similar-sounding charis, “grace,” together with the Semitic greeting salom (Greek eirene), “peace.” These gifts, foreshadowed in God’s dealings with Israel (see ⇒ Numbers 6:24-26), have been poured out abundantly in Christ, and Paul wishes them to his readers. In Romans the Pauline praescriptio is expanded and expressed in a formal tone; it emphasizes Paul’s office as apostle to the Gentiles. ⇒ Romans 1:3-4 stress the gospel or kerygma, ⇒ Romans 1:2 the fulfillment of God’s promise, and ⇒ Romans 1:1, 5 Paul’s office. On his call, see ⇒ Gal 1:15-16; ⇒ 1 Cor 9:1; ⇒ 15:8-10; ⇒ Acts 9:1-22; ⇒ 22:3-16; ⇒ 26:4-18.

2 [1] Slave of Christ Jesus: Paul applies the term slave to himself in order to express his undivided allegiance to the Lord of the church, the Master of all, including slaves and masters. “No one can serve (i.e., be a slave to) two masters,” said Jesus (⇒ Matthew 6:24). It is this aspect of the slave-master relationship rather than its degrading implications that Paul emphasizes when he discusses Christian commitment.

3 [3-4] Paul here cites an early confession that proclaims Jesus’ sonship as messianic descendant of David (cf ⇒ Matthew 22:42; ⇒ 2 Tim 2:8; ⇒ Rev 22:16) and as Son of God by the resurrection. As “life-giving spirit” (⇒ 1 Cor 15:45), Jesus Christ is able to communicate the Spirit to those who believe in him.

4 [5] Paul recalls his apostolic office, implying that the Romans know something of his history. The obedience of faith: as Paul will show at length in chs 6-8 and 12-15, faith in God’s justifying action in Jesus Christ relates one to God’s gift of the new life that is made possible through the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ and the activity of the holy Spirit (see especially ⇒ Romans 8:1-11).

5 [7] Called to be holy: Paul often refers to Christians as “the holy ones” or “the saints.” The Israelite community was called a “holy assembly” because they had been separated for the worship and service of the Lord (see ⇒ Lev 11:44; ⇒ 23:1-44). The Christian community regarded its members as sanctified by baptism (⇒ Romans 6:22; ⇒ 15:16; ⇒ 1 Cor 6:11; ⇒ Eph 5:26-27). Christians are called to holiness (⇒ 1 Cor 1:2; ⇒ 1 Thes 4:7), that is, they are called to make their lives conform to the gift they have already received.

6 [8] In Greco-Roman letters, the greeting was customarily followed by a prayer. The Pauline letters usually include this element (except Gal and 1 Tim, 2 Tim) expressed in Christian thanksgiving formulas and usually stating the principal theme of the letter. In 2 Cor the thanksgiving becomes a blessing, and in Eph it is preceded by a lengthy blessing. Sometimes the thanksgiving is blended into the body of the letter, especially in 1 Thes. In Romans it is stated briefly.

7 [10-12] Paul lays the groundwork for his more detailed statement in ⇒ Romans 15:22-24 about his projected visit to Rome.

8 [13] Brothers is idiomatic for all Paul’s “kin in Christ,” all those who believe in the gospel; it includes women as well as men (cf ⇒ Romans 4:3).

9 [14] Greeks and non-Greeks: literally, “Greeks and barbarians.” As a result of Alexander’s conquests, Greek became the standard international language of the Mediterranean world. Greeks in Paul’s statement therefore means people who know Greek or who have been influenced by Greek culture. Non-Greeks were people whose cultures remained substantially unaffected by Greek influences. Greeks called such people “barbarians” (cf ⇒ Acts 28:2), meaning people whose speech was foreign. Roman citizens would scarcely classify themselves as such, and Nero, who was reigning when Paul wrote this letter, prided himself on his admiration for Greek culture. Under obligation: Paul will expand on the theme of obligation in ⇒ Romans 13:8; ⇒ 15:1, ⇒ 27.

10 [16-17] The principal theme of the letter is salvation through faith. I am not ashamed of the gospel: Paul is not ashamed to proclaim the gospel, despite the criticism that Jews and Gentiles leveled against the proclamation of the crucified savior; cf ⇒ 1 Cor 1:23-24. Paul affirms, however, that it is precisely through the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus that God’s saving will and power become manifest. Jew first (cf ⇒ Romans 2:9-10) means that Jews especially, in view of the example of Abraham (Romans 4), ought to be the leaders in the response of faith.

11 [17] In it is revealed the righteousness of God from faith to faith: the gospel centers in Jesus Christ, in whom God’s saving presence and righteousness in history have been made known. Faith is affirmation of the basic purpose and meaning of the Old Testament as proclamation of divine promise (⇒ Romans 1:2; ⇒ 4:13) and exposure of the inability of humanity to effect its salvation even through covenant law. Faith is the gift of the holy Spirit and denotes acceptance of salvation as God’s righteousness, that is, God’s gift of a renewed relationship in forgiveness and power for a new life. Faith is response to God’s total claim on people and their destiny. The one who is righteous by faith will live: see the note on ⇒ Habakkuk 2:4.

12 [⇒ 1:18-⇒ 3:20] Paul aims to show that all humanity is in a desperate plight and requires God’s special intervention if it is to be saved.

13 [18-32] In this passage Paul uses themes and rhetoric common in Jewish-Hellenistic mission proclamation (cf ⇒ Wisdom 13:1-⇒ 14:31) to indict especially the non-Jewish world. The close association of idolatry and immorality is basic, but the generalization needs in all fairness to be balanced against the fact that non-Jewish Christian society on many levels displayed moral attitudes and performance whose quality would challenge much of contemporary Christian culture. Romans themselves expressed abhorrence over devotion accorded to animals in Egypt. Paul’s main point is that the wrath of God does not await the end of the world but goes into action at each present moment in humanity’s history when misdirected piety serves as a facade for self-interest.

14 [18] The wrath of God: God’s reaction to human sinfulness, an Old Testament phrase that expresses the irreconcilable opposition between God and evil (see ⇒ Isaiah 9:11, ⇒ 16, ⇒ 18, ⇒ 20; ⇒ 10:4; ⇒ 30:27). It is not contrary to God’s universal love for his creatures, but condemns Israel’s turning aside from the covenant obligations. Hosea depicts Yahweh as suffering intensely at the thought of having to punish Israel (⇒ Hosea 11:8-9). God’s wrath was to be poured forth especially on the “Day of Yahweh” and thus took on an eschatological connotation (see ⇒ Zephaniah 1:15).

15 [24] In order to expose the depth of humanity’s rebellion against the Creator, God handed them over to impurity through the lusts of their hearts. Instead of curbing people’s evil interests, God abandoned them to self-indulgence, thereby removing the facade of apparent conformity to the divine will. Subsequently Paul will show that the Mosaic law produces the same effect; cf ⇒ Romans 5:20; ⇒ 7:13-24. The divine judgment expressed here is related to the theme of hardness of heart described in ⇒ Romans 9:17-18.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 67. 89.

 1011. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

ACTS OF THE APOSTLES

ACTS OF THE APOSTLES

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1 In the first book, Theophilus, I dealt with all that Jesus did and taught

until the day he was taken up, after giving instructions through the holy Spirit to the apostles whom he had chosen.

He presented himself alive to them by many proofs after he had suffered, appearing to them during forty days 2 and speaking about the kingdom of God.

While meeting with them, he enjoined them not to depart from Jerusalem, but to wait for “the promise of the Father 3 about which you have heard me speak;

for John baptized with water, but in a few days you will be baptized with the holy Spirit.”

When they had gathered together they asked him, “Lord, are you at this time going 4 to restore the kingdom to Israel?”

5 He answered them, “It is not for you to know the times or seasons that the Father has established by his own authority.

6 But you will receive power when the holy Spirit comes upon you, and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem, throughout Judea and Samaria, and to the ends of the earth.”

When he had said this, as they were looking on, he was lifted up, and a cloud took him from their sight.

10 While they were looking intently at the sky as he was going, suddenly two men dressed in white garments stood beside them.

11 They said, “Men of Galilee, why are you standing there looking at the sky? This Jesus who has been taken up from you into heaven will return in the same way as you have seen him going into heaven.”

12 Then they returned to Jerusalem from the mount called Olivet, which is near Jerusalem, a sabbath day’s journey away.

13 When they entered the city they went to the upper room where they were staying, Peter and John and James and Andrew, Philip and Thomas, Bartholomew and Matthew, James son of Alphaeus, Simon the Zealot, and Judas son of James.

14 All these devoted themselves with one accord to prayer, together with some women, and Mary the mother of Jesus, and his brothers.

15 During those days Peter stood up in the midst of the brothers (there was a group of about one hundred and twenty persons in the one place). He said,

16 “My brothers, the scripture had to be fulfilled which the holy Spirit spoke beforehand through the mouth of David, concerning Judas, who was the guide for those who arrested Jesus.

17 He was numbered among us and was allotted a share in this ministry.

18 He bought a parcel of land with the wages of his iniquity, and falling headlong, he burst open in the middle, and all his insides spilled out. 7

19 This became known to everyone who lived in Jerusalem, so that the parcel of land was called in their language ‘Akeldama,’ that is, Field of Blood.

20 For it is written in the Book of Psalms: ‘Let his encampment become desolate, and may no one dwell in it.’ And: ‘May another take his office.’

21 Therefore, it is necessary that one of the men who accompanied us the whole time the Lord Jesus came and went among us,

22 beginning from the baptism of John until the day on which he was taken up from us, become with us a witness to his resurrection.”

23 So they proposed two, Joseph called Barsabbas, who was also known as Justus, and Matthias.

24 Then they prayed, “You, Lord, who know the hearts of all, show which one of these two you have chosen

25 to take the place in this apostolic ministry from which Judas turned away to go to his own place.”

26 8 Then they gave lots to them, and the lot fell upon Matthias, and he was counted with the eleven apostles. 

ACTS OF THE APOSTLES

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 [1-26] This introductory material (⇒ Acts 1:1-2) connects Acts with the Gospel of Luke, shows that the apostles were instructed by the risen Jesus (⇒ Acts 1:3-5), points out that the parousia or second coming in glory of Jesus will occur as certainly as his ascension occurred (⇒ Acts 1:6-11), and lists the members of the Twelve, stressing their role as a body of divinely mandated witnesses to his life, teaching, and resurrection (⇒ Acts 1:12-26).

2 [3] Appearing to them during forty days: Luke considered especially sacred the interval in which the appearances and instructions of the risen Jesus occurred and expressed it therefore in terms of the sacred number forty (cf ⇒ Deut 8:2). In his gospel, however, Luke connects the ascension of Jesus with the resurrection by describing the ascension on Easter Sunday evening (⇒ Luke 24:50-53). What should probably be understood as one event (resurrection, glorification, ascension, sending of the Spirit – the paschal mystery) has been historicized by Luke when he writes of a visible ascension of Jesus after forty days and the descent of the Spirit at Pentecost. For Luke, the ascension marks the end of the appearances of Jesus except for the extraordinary appearance to Paul. With regard to Luke’s understanding of salvation history, the ascension also marks the end of the time of Jesus (⇒ Luke 24:50-53) and signals the beginning of the time of the church.

3 [4] The promise of the Father: the holy Spirit, as is clear from the next verse. This gift of the Spirit was first promised in Jesus’ final instructions to his chosen witnesses in Luke’s gospel (⇒ Luke 24:49) and formed part of the continuing instructions of the risen Jesus on the kingdom of God, of which Luke speaks in ⇒ Acts 1:3.

4 [6] The question of the disciples implies that in believing Jesus to be the Christ (see the note on ⇒ Luke 2:11) they had expected him to be a political leader who would restore self-rule to Israel during his historical ministry. When this had not taken place, they ask if it is to take place at this time, the period of the church.

5 [7] This verse echoes the tradition that the precise time of the parousia is not revealed to human beings; cf ⇒ Mark 13:32; ⇒ 1 Thes 5:1-3.

6 [8] Just as Jerusalem was the city of destiny in the Gospel of Luke (the place where salvation was accomplished), so here at the beginning of Acts, Jerusalem occupies a central position. It is the starting point for the mission of the Christian disciples to “the ends of the earth,” the place where the apostles were situated and the doctrinal focal point in the early days of the community (⇒ Acts 15:2, 6). The ends of the earth: for Luke, this means Rome.

7 [18] Luke records a popular tradition about the death of Judas that differs from the one in ⇒ Matthew 27:5, according to which Judas hanged himself. Here, although the text is not certain, Judas is depicted as purchasing a piece of property with the betrayal money and being killed on it in a fall.

8 [26] The need to replace Judas was probably dictated by the symbolism of the number twelve, recalling the twelve tribes of Israel. This symbolism also indicates that for Luke (see ⇒ Luke 22:30) the Christian church is a reconstituted Israel.

ACTS OF THE APOSTLES

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OLD TESTAMENT 

THE GOSPELS

NEW  TESTAMENT 

BIBLE – NEW TESTAMENT

 

The Gospels


Saint Matthew    

Saint Mark  

Saint Luke    

Saint John

Acts

New Testament Letters


Romans    

1 Corinthians  

2 Corinthians    

Galatians  

Ephesians    

Philippians  

Colossians  

1 Thessalonians

 2 Thessalonians  

1 Timothy    

2 Timothy  

Titus    

Philemon  

Hebrews

The Catholic Letters


James  

1 Peter  

2 Peter  

1 John  

2 John  

3 John  

Jude  

Revelation

OLD TESTAMENT  

THE GOSPELS  

NEW  TESTAMENT 

OLD TESTAMENT 

THE GOSPELS

NEW  TESTAMENT 

JOHN – CHAPTER 1

 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  11. 

12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

1 2 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

He was in the beginning with God.

3 All things came to be through him, and without him nothing came to be. What came to be

through him was life, and this life was the light of the human race;

4 the light shines in the darkness, and the darkness has not overcome it.

5 A man named John was sent from God.

He came for testimony, 6 to testify to the light, so that all might believe through him.

He was not the light, but came to testify to the light.

The true light, which enlightens everyone, was coming into the world.

10 He was in the world, and the world came to be through him, but the world did not know him.

11 He came to what was his own, but his own people 7 did not accept him.

12 But to those who did accept him he gave power to become children of God, to those who believe in his name,

13 8 who were born not by natural generation nor by human choice nor by a man’s decision but of God.

14 And the Word became flesh 9 and made his dwelling among us, and we saw his glory, the glory as of the Father’s only Son, full of grace and truth.

15 10 John testified to him and cried out, saying, “This was he of whom I said, ‘The one who is coming after me ranks ahead of me because he existed before me.'”

16 From his fullness we have all received, grace in place of grace, 11

17 because while the law was given through Moses, grace and truth came through Jesus Christ.

18 No one has ever seen God. The only Son, God, 12 who is at the Father’s side, has revealed him.

19 13 14 And this is the testimony of John. When the Jews from Jerusalem sent priests and Levites (to him) to ask him, “Who are you?”

20 15 he admitted and did not deny it, but admitted, “I am not the Messiah.”

21 So they asked him, “What are you then? Are you Elijah?” 16 And he said, “I am not.” “Are you the Prophet?” He answered, “No.”

22 So they said to him, “Who are you, so we can give an answer to those who sent us? What do you have to say for yourself?”

23 He said: “I am ‘the voice of one crying out in the desert, “Make straight the way of the Lord,”‘ 17 as Isaiah the prophet said.”

24 Some Pharisees 18 were also sent.

25 They asked him, “Why then do you baptize if you are not the Messiah or Elijah or the Prophet?”

26 John answered them, “I baptize with water; 19 but there is one among you whom you do not recognize,

27 the one who is coming after me, whose sandal strap I am not worthy to untie.”

28 This happened in Bethany across the Jordan, 20 where John was baptizing.

29 The next day he saw Jesus coming toward him and said, “Behold, the Lamb of God, 21 who takes away the sin of the world.

30 22 He is the one of whom I said, ‘A man is coming after me who ranks ahead of me because he existed before me.’

31 I did not know him, 23 but the reason why I came baptizing with water was that he might be made known to Israel.”

32 John testified further, saying, “I saw the Spirit come down like a dove 24 from the sky and remain upon him.

33 I did not know him, but the one who sent me to baptize with water told me, ‘On whomever you see the Spirit come down and remain, he is the one who will baptize with the holy Spirit.’

34 25 Now I have seen and testified that he is the Son of God.”

35 The next day John was there again with two of his disciples,

36 and as he watched Jesus walk by, he said, “Behold, the Lamb of God.” 26

37 The two disciples 27 heard what he said and followed Jesus.

38 Jesus turned and saw them following him and said to them, “What are you looking for?” They said to him, “Rabbi” (which translated means Teacher), “where are you staying?”

39 He said to them,”Come, and you will see.” So they went and saw where he was staying, and they stayed with him that day. It was about four in the afternoon. 28

40 Andrew, the brother of Simon Peter, was one of the two who heard John and followed Jesus.

41 He first found his own brother Simon and told him, “We have found the Messiah” 29 (which is translated Anointed).

42 Then he brought him to Jesus. Jesus looked at him and said, “You are Simon the son of John; 30 you will be called Kephas” (which is translated Peter).

43 The next day he 31 decided to go to Galilee, and he found Philip. And Jesus said to him, “Follow me.”

44 Now Philip was from Bethsaida, the town of Andrew and Peter.

45 Philip found Nathanael and told him, “We have found the one about whom Moses wrote in the law, and also the prophets, Jesus, son of Joseph, from Nazareth.”

46 But Nathanael said to him, “Can anything good come from Nazareth?” Philip said to him, “Come and see.”

47 Jesus saw Nathanael coming toward him and said of him, “Here is a true Israelite. 32 There is no duplicity in him.”

48 33 Nathanael said to him, “How do you know me?” Jesus answered and said to him, “Before Philip called you, I saw you under the fig tree.”

49 Nathanael answered him, “Rabbi, you are the Son of God; 34 you are the King of Israel.”

50 Jesus answered and said to him, “Do you believe because I told you that I saw you under the fig tree? 35 You will see greater things than this.”

51 And he said to him, “Amen, amen, 36 I say to you, you will see the sky opened and the angels of God ascending and descending on the Son of Man.”

 

 

1 [1-18] The prologue states the main themes of the gospel: life, light, truth, the world, testimony, and the preexistence of Jesus Christ, the incarnate Logos, who reveals God the Father. In origin, it was probably an early Christian hymn. Its closest parallel is in other christological hymns, Col 1:15-20 and Philippians 2:6-11. Its core ( John 1:1-5, 10-11, 14) is poetic in structure, with short phrases linked by “staircase parallelism,” in which the last word of one phrase becomes the first word of the next. Prose inserts (at least John 1:6-8, 15) deal with John the Baptist.

2 [1] In the beginning: also the first words of the Old Testament ( Genesis 1:1). Was: this verb is used three times with different meanings in this verse: existence, relationship, and predication. The Word (Greek logos): this term combines God’s dynamic, creative word (Genesis), personified preexistent Wisdom as the instrument of God’s creative activity (Proverbs), and the ultimate intelligibility of reality (Hellenistic philosophy). With God: the Greek preposition here connotes communication with another. Was God: lack of a definite article with “God” in Greek signifies predication rather than identification.

3 [1] What came to be: while the oldest manuscripts have no punctuation here, the corrector of Bodmer Papyrus P75, some manuscripts, and the Ante-Nicene Fathers take this phrase with what follows, as staircase parallelism. Connection with John 1:3 reflects fourth-century anti-Arianism.

4 [5] The ethical dualism of light and darkness is paralleled in intertestamental literature and in the Dead Sea Scrolls. Overcome: “comprehend” is another possible translation, but cf John 12:35; Wisdom 7:29-30.

5 [6] John was sent just as Jesus was “sent” ( John 4:34) in divine mission. Other references to John the Baptist in this gospel emphasize the differences between them and John’s subordinate role.

6 [7] Testimony: the testimony theme of John is introduced, which portrays Jesus as if on trial throughout his ministry. All testify to Jesus: John the Baptist, the Samaritan woman, scripture, his works, the crowds, the Spirit, and his disciples.

7 [11] What was his own . . . his own people: first a neuter, literally, “his own property/possession” (probably = Israel), then a masculine, “his own people” (the Israelites).

8 [13] Believers in Jesus become children of God not through any of the three natural causes mentioned but through God who is the immediate cause of the new spiritual life. Were born: the Greek verb can mean “begotten” (by a male) or “born” (from a female or of parents). The variant “he who was begotten,” asserting Jesus’ virginal conception, is weakly attested in Old Latin and Syriac versions.

9 [14] Flesh: the whole person, used probably against docetic tendencies (cf 1 John 4:2; 1:7). Made his dwelling: literally, “pitched his tent/tabernacle.” Cf the tabernacle or tent of meeting that was the place of God’s presence among his people ( Exodus 25:8-9). The incarnate Word is the new mode of God’s presence among his people. The Greek verb has the same consonants as the Aramaic word for God’s presence (Shekinah). Glory: God’s visible manifestation of majesty in power, which once filled the tabernacle ( Exodus 40:34) and the temple ( 1 Kings 8:10-11, 27), is now centered in Jesus. Only Son: Greek, monogenes, but see the note on John 1:18. Grace and truth: these words may represent two Old Testament terms describing Yahweh in covenant relationship with Israel (cf Exodus 34:6), thus God’s “love” and “fidelity.” The Word shares Yahweh’s covenant qualities.

10 [15] This verse, interrupting John 1:14, 16 seems drawn from John 1:30.

11 [16] Grace in place of grace: replacement of the Old Covenant with the New (cf John 1:17). Other possible translations are “grace upon grace” (accumulation) and “grace for grace” (correspondence).

12 [18] The only Son, God: while the vast majority of later textual witnesses have another reading, “the Son, the only one” or “the only Son,” the translation above follows the best and earliest manuscripts, monogenes theos, but takes the first term to mean not just “Only One” but to include a filial relationship with the Father, as at Luke 9:38 (“only child”) or Hebrews 11:17 (“only son”) and as translated at John 1:14. The Logos is thus “only Son” and God but not Father/God.

13 [19-51] The testimony of John the Baptist about the Messiah and Jesus’ self-revelation to the first disciples. This section constitutes the introduction to the gospel proper and is connected with the prose inserts in the prologue. It develops the major theme of testimony in four scenes: John’s negative testimony about himself; his positive testimony about Jesus; the revelation of Jesus to Andrew and Peter; the revelation of Jesus to Philip and Nathanael.

14 [19] The Jews: throughout most of the gospel, the “Jews” does not refer to the Jewish people as such but to the hostile authorities, both Pharisees and Sadducees, particularly in Jerusalem, who refuse to believe in Jesus. The usage reflects the atmosphere, at the end of the first century, of polemics between church and synagogue, or possibly it refers to Jews as representative of a hostile world ( John 1:10-11).

15 [20] Messiah: the anointed agent of Yahweh, usually considered to be of Davidic descent. See further the note on John 1:41.

16 [21] Elijah: the Baptist did not claim to be Elijah returned to earth (cf Malachi 3:23; Matthew 11:14). The Prophet: probably the prophet like Moses ( Deut 18:15; cf Acts 3:22).

17 [23] This is a repunctuation and reinterpretation (as in the synoptic gospels and Septuagint) of the Hebrew text of Isaiah 40:3 which reads, “A voice cries out: In the desert prepare the way of the Lord.”

18 [24] Some Pharisees: other translations, such as “Now they had been sent from the Pharisees,” misunderstand the grammatical construction. This is a different group from that in John 1:19; the priests and Levites would have been Sadducees, not Pharisees.

19 [26] I baptize with water: the synoptics add “but he will baptize you with the holy Spirit” ( Mark 1:8) or “. . . holy Spirit and fire” ( Matthew 3:11; Luke 3:16). John’s emphasis is on purification and preparation for a better baptism.

20 [28] Bethany across the Jordan: site unknown. Another reading is “Bethabara.”

21 [29] The Lamb of God: the background for this title may be the victorious apocalyptic lamb who would destroy evil in the world (Rev 5-7; 17:14); the paschal lamb, whose blood saved Israel (Exodus 12); and/or the suffering servant led like a lamb to the slaughter as a sin-offering ( Isaiah 53:7, 10).

22 [30] He existed before me: possibly as Elijah (to come, John 1:27); for the evangelist and his audience, Jesus’ preexistence would be implied (see the note on John 1:1).

23 [31] I did not know him: this gospel shows no knowledge of the tradition (Luke 1) about the kinship of Jesus and John the Baptist. The reason why I came baptizing with water: in this gospel, John’s baptism is not connected with forgiveness of sins; its purpose is revelatory, that Jesus may be made known to Israel.

24 [32] Like a dove: a symbol of the new creation ( Genesis 8:8) or the community of Israel ( Hosea 11:11). Remain: the first use of a favorite verb in John, emphasizing the permanency of the relationship between Father and Son (as here) and between the Son and the Christian. Jesus is the permanent bearer of the Spirit.

25 [34] The Son of God: this reading is supported by good Greek manuscripts, including the Chester Beatty and Bodmer Papyri and the Vatican Codex, but is suspect because it harmonizes this passage with the synoptic version: “This is my beloved Son” ( Matthew 3:17; Mark 1:11; Luke 3:22). The poorly attested alternate reading, “God’s chosen One,” is probably a reference to the Servant of Yahweh ( Isaiah 42:1).

26 [36] John the Baptist’s testimony makes his disciples’ following of Jesus plausible.

27 [37] The two disciples: Andrew ( John 1:40) and, traditionally, John, son of Zebedee (see the note on John 13:23).

28 [39] Four in the afternoon: literally, the tenth hour, from sunrise, in the Roman calculation of time. Some suggest that the next day, beginning at sunset, was the sabbath; they would have stayed with Jesus to avoid travel on it.

29 [41] Messiah: the Hebrew word masiah, “anointed one” (see the note on Luke 2:11), appears in Greek as the transliterated messias only here and in John 4:25. Elsewhere the Greek translation christos is used.

30 [42] Simon, the son of John: in Matthew 16:17, Simon is called Bariona, “son of Jonah,” a different tradition for the name of Simon’s father. Kephas: in Aramaic = the Rock; cf Matthew 16:18. Neither the Greek equivalent Petros nor, with one isolated exception, Kephas is attested as a personal name before Christian times.

31 [43] He: grammatically, could be Peter, but logically is probably Jesus.

32 [47] A true Israelite. There is no duplicity in him: Jacob was the first to bear the name “Israel” ( Genesis 32:29), but Jacob was a man of duplicity ( Genesis 27:35-36).

33 [48] Under the fig tree: a symbol of messianic peace (cf Micah 4:4; Zechariah 3:10).

34 [49] Son of God: this title is used in the Old Testament, among other ways, as a title of adoption for the Davidic king ( 2 Sam 7:14; Psalm 2:7; 89:27), and thus here, with King of Israel, in a messianic sense. For the evangelist, Son of God also points to Jesus’ divinity (cf John 20:28).

35 [50] Possibly a statement: “You [singular] believe because I saw you under the fig tree.”

36 [51] The double “Amen” is characteristic of John. You is plural in Greek. The allusion is to Jacob’s ladder ( Genesis 28:12).

MATTHEW – CHAPTER 1

1. 234567. 89. 10. 111213. 1415.

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Chapter 1

1

1 2 The book of the genealogy of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham.

2

Abraham became the father of Isaac, Isaac the father of Jacob, Jacob the father of Judah and his brothers.

3

Judah became the father of Perez and Zerah, whose mother was Tamar. Perez became the father of Hezron, Hezron the father of Ram,

4

Ram the father of Amminadab. Amminadab became the father of Nahshon, Nahshon the father of Salmon,

5

Salmon the father of Boaz, whose mother was Rahab. Boaz became the father of Obed, whose mother was Ruth. Obed became the father of Jesse,

6

Jesse the father of David the king. David became the father of Solomon, whose mother had been the wife of Uriah.

7

3 Solomon became the father of Rehoboam, Rehoboam the father of Abijah, Abijah the father of Asaph.

8

Asaph became the father of Jehoshaphat, Jehoshaphat the father of Joram, Joram the father of Uzziah.

9

Uzziah became the father of Jotham, Jotham the father of Ahaz, Ahaz the father of Hezekiah.

10

Hezekiah became the father of Manasseh, Manasseh the father of Amos, 4 Amos the father of Josiah.

11

Josiah became the father of Jechoniah and his brothers at the time of the Babylonian exile.

12

After the Babylonian exile, Jechoniah became the father of Shealtiel, Shealtiel the father of Zerubbabel,

13

Zerubbabel the father of Abiud. Abiud became the father of Eliakim, Eliakim the father of Azor,

14

Azor the father of Zadok. Zadok became the father of Achim, Achim the father of Eliud,

15

Eliud the father of Eleazar. Eleazar became the father of Matthan, Matthan the father of Jacob,

16

Jacob the father of Joseph, the husband of Mary. Of her was born Jesus who is called the Messiah.

17

Thus the total number of generations from Abraham to David is fourteen generations; from David to the Babylonian exile, fourteen generations; from the Babylonian exile to the Messiah, fourteen generations. 5

18

6 Now this is how the birth of Jesus Christ came about. When his mother Mary was betrothed to Joseph, 7 but before they lived together, she was found with child through the holy Spirit.

19

Joseph her husband, since he was a righteous man, 8 yet unwilling to expose her to shame, decided to divorce her quietly.

20

Such was his intention when, behold, the angel of the Lord 9 appeared to him in a dream and said, “Joseph, son of David, do not be afraid to take Mary your wife into your home. For it is through the holy Spirit that this child has been conceived in her.

21

She will bear a son and you are to name him Jesus, 10 because he will save his people from their sins.”

22

All this took place to fulfill what the Lord had said through the prophet:

23

11 “Behold, the virgin shall be with child and bear a son, and they shall name him Emmanuel,” which means “God is with us.”

24

When Joseph awoke, he did as the angel of the Lord had commanded him and took his wife into his home.

25

He had no relations with her until she bore a son, 12 and he named him Jesus.

 1. 234567. 89. 10. 111213. 1415.

 16. 17. 1819. 202122. 23. 24. 2526. 2728.

 

1 [ 1:1- 2:23] The infancy narrative forms the prologue of the gospel. Consisting of a genealogy and five stories, it presents the coming of Jesus as the climax of Israel’s history, and the events of his conception, birth, and early childhood as the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy. The genealogy is probably traditional material that Matthew edited. In its first two sections ( Matthew 1:2-11) it was drawn from Ruth 4:18-22; 1 Chron 1-3. Except for Jechoniah, Shealtiel, and Zerubbabel, none of the names in the third section ( Matthew 1:12-16) is found in any Old Testament genealogy. While the genealogy shows the continuity of God’s providential plan from Abraham on, discontinuity is also present. The women Tamar ( Matthew 1:3), Rahab and Ruth ( Matthew 1:5), and the wife of Uriah, Bathsheba ( Matthew 1:6), bore their sons through unions that were in varying degrees strange and unexpected. These “irregularities” culminate in the supreme “irregularity” of the Messiah’s birth of a virgin mother; the age of fulfillment is inaugurated by a creative act of God. Drawing upon both biblical tradition and Jewish stories, Matthew portrays Jesus as reliving the Exodus experience of Israel and the persecutions of Moses. His rejection by his own people and his passion are foreshadowed by the troubled reaction of “all Jerusalem” to the question of the magi who are seeking the “newborn king of the Jews” ( Matthew 2:2-3), and by Herod’s attempt to have him killed. The magi who do him homage prefigure the Gentiles who will accept the preaching of the gospel. The infancy narrative proclaims who Jesus is, the savior of his people from their sins ( Matthew 1:21), Emmanuel in whom “God is with us” ( Matthew 1:23), and the Son of God ( Matthew 2:15).

2 [1] The Son of David, the son of Abraham: two links of the genealogical chain are singled out. Although the later, David is placed first in order to emphasize that Jesus is the royal Messiah. The mention of Abraham may be due not only to his being the father of the nation Israel but to Matthew’s interest in the universal scope of Jesus’ mission; cf Genesis 22:18 “. . . . in your descendants all the nations of the earth shall find blessing.”

3 [7] The successor of Abijah was not Asaph but Asa (see 1 Chron 3:10). Some textual witnesses read the latter name; however, Asaph is better attested. Matthew may have deliberately introduced the psalmist Asaph into the genealogy (and in Matthew 1:10 the prophet Amos) in order to show that Jesus is the fulfillment not only of the promises made to David (see 2 Sam 7) but of all the Old Testament.

4 [10] Amos: some textual witnesses read Amon, who was the actual successor of Manasseh (see 1 Chron 3:14).

5 [17] Matthew is concerned with fourteen generations, probably because fourteen is the numerical value of the Hebrew letters forming the name of David. In the second section of the genealogy ( Matthew 1:6b-11), three kings of Judah, Ahaziah, Joash, and Amaziah, have been omitted (see 1 Chron 3:11-12), so that there are fourteen generations in that section. Yet the third ( Matthew 1:12-16) apparently has only thirteen. Since Matthew here emphasizes that each section has fourteen, it is unlikely that the thirteen of the last was due to his oversight. Some scholars suggest that Jesus who is called the Messiah ( Matthew 1:16b) doubles the final member of the chain: Jesus, born within the family of David, opens up the new age as Messiah, so that in fact there are fourteen generations in the third section. This is perhaps too subtle, and the hypothesis of a slip not on the part of Matthew but of a later scribe seems likely. On Messiah, see the note on Luke 2:11.

6 [18-25] This first story of the infancy narrative spells out what is summarily indicated in Matthew 1:16. The virginal conception of Jesus is the work of the Spirit of God. Joseph’s decision to divorce Mary is overcome by the heavenly command that he take her into his home and accept the child as his own. The natural genealogical line is broken but the promises to David are fulfilled; through Joseph’s adoption the child belongs to the family of David. Matthew sees the virginal conception as the fulfillment of Isaiah 7:14.

7 [18] Betrothed to Joseph: betrothal was the first part of the marriage, constituting a man and woman as husband and wife. Subsequent infidelity was considered adultery. The betrothal was followed some months later by the husband’s taking his wife into his home, at which time normal married life began.

8 [19] A righteous man: as a devout observer of the Mosaic law, Joseph wished to break his union with someone whom he suspected of gross violation of the law. It is commonly said that the law required him to do so, but the texts usually given in support of that view, e.g., Deut 22:20-21 do not clearly pertain to Joseph’s situation. Unwilling to expose her to shame: the penalty for proved adultery was death by stoning; cf Deut 22:21-23.

9 [20] The angel of the Lord: in the Old Testament a common designation of God in communication with a human being. In a dream: see Matthew 2:13, 19, 22. These dreams may be meant to recall the dreams of Joseph, son of Jacob the patriarch ( Genesis 37:5- 11:19). A closer parallel is the dream of Amram, father of Moses, related by Josephus (Antiquities 2,9,3; 212, 215-16).

10 [21] Jesus: in first-century Judaism the Hebrew name Joshua (Greek Iesous) meaning “Yahweh helps” was interpreted as “Yahweh saves.”

11 [23] God is with us: God’s promise of deliverance to Judah in Isaiah’s time is seen by Matthew as fulfilled in the birth of Jesus, in whom God is with his people. The name Emmanuel is alluded to at the end of the gospel where the risen Jesus assures his disciples of his continued presence,”. . . I am with you always, until the end of the age” ( Matthew 28:20).

12 [25] Until she bore a son: the evangelist is concerned to emphasize that Joseph was not responsible for the conception of Jesus. The Greek word translated “until” does not imply normal marital conduct after Jesus’ birth, nor does it exclude it.

1. 234567. 89. 10. 111213. 1415.

 16. 17. 1819. 202122. 23. 24. 2526. 2728.

OLD TESTAMENT  – THE GOSPELS — NEW  TESTAMENT